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JOURNAL

of the

ENTOMOLOGICAL

SOCIETY of BRITISH COLUMBIA

Vol. 76 Issued December 31, 1979

ECONOMIC H. F. MADSEN & B. E. CARTY—Organic pest control: Two years experience in a commercial apple orchard

D. G. FINLAYSON, A. T. S. WILKINSON & J. R. MacKENZIE—Efficacy of insecticides against tuber flea bettles, wireworms and aphids in potatoes

DAVID L. KULHAVY & R. W. STARK—Effects of the antitranspirant Dow Corning RXEF-4-3561 on arthropods on a

of the caudal appendage in cocoon jumping of Phobocampe sp. 2 : (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae:Campopleginae) oo BOOK REVIEW |

F: North Idaho catchment io GENERAL et R. S. VERNON & J. H. BORDEN—H ylemya Antiqua (Meigen):Longevity As ; and oviposition in the laboratory et ' ROBERT A. CANNINGS & RICHARD J. CANNINGS—Northerly range ma extension for Cramptonomyia Spenceri Alexander a. | (Diptera:Pachyneuridae) et RONALD L. MAHONEY, JAMES A. MOORE & JOHN A. SCHENK— =i Validation and refinement of a plant indicator model for ss | grand fir mortality by the fir engraver Me KAREN HOSSACK AND ROBERT A. COSTELLO—Predation by xg Anisogammarus Confervicolus (Amphipoda:Gammaridea) on ee Aedes Togoi (Diptera:Culicidae) oa J. W. E. HARRIS & A. F. DAWSON—Predator release ‘program for td balsam woolly aphid, Adelges Piceae (Homoptera:Adelgidae), a in British Columbia, 1960-1969 peg D. S. RUTH & A. F. HEDLIN—Observation on a twigminer, ol Argyresthia Pseudotsuga Freeman (Lepidoptera:Y ponomeutdae), ea in Douglas Fir seed orchards Ma J. W. E. HARRIS & A. F. DAWSON—Parasitoids of the western spruce eae budworm. Choristoneura Occidentalis (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), PSs in British Columbia 1977-78 1 . DAVID R. GILLESPIE & THEMLA FINLAYSON—The function

JOURNAL

of the

ENTOMOLOGICAL

SOCIETY of BRITISH COLUMBIA

Issued December 31, 1979

ECONOMIC

H. F. MADSEN & B. E. CARTY—Organic pest control: Two years experience in a commercial apple orchard

D. G. FINLAYSON, A. T. S. WILKINSON & J. R. MacKENZIE—Efficacy of insecticides against tuber flea bettles, wireworms and aphids in potatoes DAVID L. KULHAVY & R. W. STARK—Effects of the antitranspirant Dow CorningRXEF-4-3561 on arthropods on a North Idaho catchment

GENERAL

R.S. VERNON & J. H. BORDEN—Hylemya A ntiqua (Meigen):Longevity and oviposition in the laboratory

ROBERT A. CANNINGS & RICHARD J. CANNINGS—Northerly range extension for Cramptonomyia Spenceri Alexander (Diptera:Pachyneuridae)

RONALD L. MAHONEY, JAMES A. MOORE & JOHN A. SCHENK— Validation and refinement of a plant indicator model for grand fir mortality by the fir engraver

KAREN HOSSACK AND ROBERT A. COSTELLO—Predation by Anisogammarus Confervicolus (Amphipoda:Gammaridea) on Aedes Togqoi (Diptera:Culicidae)

J. W. E. HARRIS & A. F. DAWSON—Predator release program for balsam woolly aphid, Adelges Piceae (Homoptera:Adelgidae), in British Columbia, 1960-1969

D.S. RUTH & A. F. HEDLIN—Observation on a twigminer, Argyresthia Pseudotsuga Freeman (Lepidoptera:Y ponomeutdae), in Douglas Fir seed orchards

J. W. E. HARRIS & A. F. DAWSON—Parasitoids of the western spruce budworm. Choristoneura Occidentalis (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), in British Columbia 1977-78

DAVID R. GILLESPIE & THEMLA FINLAYSON—The function of the caudal appendage in cocoon jumping of Phobocampe sp. (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae:Campopleginae)

BOOK REVIEW

J. ENTOMOL. Soc. BRIT. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), DEc. 31, 1979

Directors of the Entomological Society of British Columbia for 1979-1980

President R. ELLIOTT

University of B.C., Vancouver

President-Elect A. R. FORBES

Research Station, Agriculture Canada Vancouver

Past President P. BELTON

Simon Fraser University Burnaby

Secretary-Treasurer

B. D. FRAZER 6660 N.W. Marine Drive Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1X2

Editor H. R. MacCARTHY

Vancouver

Directors R. A. CANNINGS (lst) L. SAFRANYK (ist) G. MILLER (ist) D. BATES (2nd) J. McLEAN (2nd)

Regional Director of National Society

J. ARRAND B.C. Min. of Agriculture, Victoria

J. ENTOMOL. Soc. BRIT. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), DEc. 31, 1979 3

ORGANIC PEST CONTROL: TWO YEARS EXPERIENCE IN A COMMERCIAL APPLE ORCHARD!

H. F. MADSEN AND B.E. CARTY

Agriculture Canada, Research Station, Summerland, British Columbia VOH 1Z0

ABSTRACT

An orchard under an organic control program was studied for the in- cidence of pests during 2 years. Sex pheromone traps were used to control codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonilla (Linnaeus), by removing males. The only pesticides used in the orchard were petroleum oil at the delayed dormant period to suppress the overwintering eggs of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and Bacillus thuriengiensis to control leafrollers, Archips argyrospilus (Walker), and Archips rosanus (Linnaeus). Leaf and fruit samples were taken for all the major pests which attack apples but the only pests which required treatment were the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee in 1977 and the codling moth in 1978. The failure to control codling moth may result in the curtailment of the organic program unless supplemental controls can be found.

INTRODUCTION

Considerable experience has been obtained in British Columbia interior apple orchards on pest management (Madsen, Peters and Vakenti 1975, Madsen and Carty 1977). All of the pest- managed programs so far have depended upon chemical control when samples indicated a need for treatment. In 1977, one of our orchardists, who had been under a pest-managed program for 4 years, decided to manage his apple orchard organically. We viewed this move as an oppor- tunity to evaluate organic control on a commer- cial basis. The orchardist did not eliminate pesticides, but restricted their use to petroleum oils, Bacillus thuriengiensis, and soaps which are approved as organic pesticides.

METHODS

The isolated orchard of about 5 ha was bordered by Vaseux Lake on the west and Highway 97 on the east. A relative of the orchar- dist had about 2 ha of peaches and apples across the highway and there were a few apple trees 1 km to the south and an orchard 2 km to the north. There were three cultivars in the orchard, ‘Spartan’, ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’.

We decided to use pheromone sticky traps to remove male codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella (Linnaeus), since this method had been successful in an isolated orchard in another area of the Okanagan Valley (Madsen, Vakenti and Peters 1976). Pheroncon® 1 CP traps (Zoecon Corp., Palo Alto, CA) baited with Pherocon® rubber caps containing 1 mg of codlemone were used to capture male codling moths. The traps were installed at a density of 10 per ha because codling moth populations were similar to those in the orchard where male removal had been successful. The traps were

‘Contribution No. 499, Research Station, Summerland.

suspended about 1.6 m from the ground, ex- amined weekly and the captured moths recorded and removed. The entrapment portion of the trap was replaced if contaminated and was changed routinely after 3 months use. The at- tractant caps were replaced at 4-week intervals.

All major pests were sampled during 1977 and 1978 but because the orchard was under an organic program, sprays were not necessarily applied even though an economic threshold level may have been exceeded. Sampling methods were the same as those described by Madsen and Carty (1977) with one exception: a limb tap sample at full bloom was substituted for the pink bud cluster sample to assess lepidopterous pests which attack apples during this period.

Only 2 chemicals were used during 1977 and 1978. One was petroleum oil which was applied as a delayed dormant spray to reduce popula- tions of aphids and European red mites, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), by suppressing their eggs. The other was Dipel® a 3.2 percent wet- table powder formulation of Bacillus thuringien- sis applied at the pink and petal fall stages to control leafrollers and other lepidoptera.

The final evaluation of the program was made at harvest where about ™% of the three apple cultivars were examined in the field for in- sect damage. All damage was recorded and used to calculate the percentage of the fruit injured by insects which attack fruit directly. We esti- mated the injury caused by pests which attack leaves and have an indirect effect upon the apples, by examining the apples for size and color.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The best way to discuss our data over the 2- year period is to present the information by pest species. Codling Moth Male codling moth captures

4 J. ENTOMOL. Soc. BRIT. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), Dec. 31, 1979

are illustrated in Fig. 1. In 1977, we captured a total of 166 male moths and the percentage in- jured fruit, an average of the 3 varieties, was 0.6. These were encouraging results in the initial year of male removal, but an infestation of 0.6 presented a potential problem for the following season. Total male captures during 1978 was 878, a 5-fold increase over the previous year. As Fig. 1 illustrates, most of the moths were cap- tured during second generation activity. The percent injured fruit was 7.0 which is an 11-fold increase and an unacceptable level in a commer- cial orchard. These data demonstrate the resurgence capability of the codling moth and indicate that male removal is effective only under special circumstances, of which isolation is one (Madsen, Vakenti and Peters 1976).

Leafrollers Two species of leafroller were pre- sent, the fruittree leafroller, Archips argyrospilus (Walker), and the European leafroller, Archips rosanus (Linnaeus). In addi- tion, heavy populations of Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) were recorded in 1977. Bruce spanworm is active during the pre- bloom period and is mainly a blossom and leaf

feeder (McMullen 1973). Since Bacillus thur- ingiensis is considered an organic pesticide, we applied 2 sprays, one at the pink stage and one at the petal fall in both seasons. Samples in- dicated a need for treatment in 1977, but not in 1978. The orchardist, however, decided to apply Bacillus in 1978 regardless of our sample and ad- vice. Injury to the fruit caused by this complex of lepidoptera was 0.2 percent in both 1977 and 1978 which is excellent control. Although we were not able to establish a control plot in the or- chard, injury caused by leafroller was in the range of 2.0 percent in 1976 following a single petal fall spray of axinphos-methyl These data indicate that Bacillus thuringiensis can provide control of leafroller and Bruce spanworm on ap- ples although 2 applications are required to pro- vide protection during the period from pink to petal fall.

Scale Insects The samples at harvest showed no infestation of San Jose _ scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock), although it is abundant in the area. It is pro- bable that the routine application of petroleum oil keeps this pest under control.

CODLING MOTH SEX PHEROMONE TRAP CAPTURES THORSTENSON ORCHARD - OLIVER TRAP DENSITY - 10/HA.

% Injury - 0.6 = 1.5 ec = ec Ww 104 n” = ° > 0:55 0 2 16 30 13 27 MAY JUNE 3.5 30 orl moths - 878 % Injury - 7.0 az 25 [og c ee 20 no x= = 215

1 15 29 12 26

MAY JUNE

2.0 | Total moths - 166

11 JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER

1978

10 24 JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER

1977

25 8 22 5 19

7 21 4 = 18

Fig. 1. Male codling moth captures, 1977-1978, in the Thorstenson Orchard, Vaseaux Lake, Oliver,

B.C

J. ENTOMOL. Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), Dec. 31, 1979 5

Leafhoppers The white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, exceeded our treatment level in 1977 and leaf damage was ex- tensive. At harvest, we were unable to show any effect upon size or color of the apples as a result of this heavy infestation. Leafhopper adults were sO numerous, however, that they were a nuisance factor to the pickers. In 1978, our samples showed very few leafhoppers and ex- amination of leafhopper eggs indicated a high percentage of parasitism from an unidentified braconid parasite. This parasite effectively con- trolled white apple leafhopper so that it was not a problem during the entire season.

Thrips and Campylomma The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), was present in both years, but blossom samples did not indicate a need for treatment. Injury to the susceptible ‘Spartan’ variety was negligible. Campylomma verbasci (Meyer), a fruit feeding mirid, was present but in very low numbers and there was no indication of injury to the suscepti- ble varieties ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’.

Aphids Rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plan- tagina (Passerini) was present on scattered trees in both seasons, but the orchardist was able to keep the pest under control by pruning the infested terminals. Apple aphid, Aphis pomi DeGeer was noted only on young trees and was

not abundant enough to cause any damage. Mites Biological control of the European red mite and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtenali (Nalepa), occurred in both seasons. The applications of delayed dormant petroleum oils assisted by reducing the number of viable eggs of the European red mite. There was an excellent ratio of the _ predator, Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt to the phytophagous mites and the latter was held well below a treatment level. Downing and Arrand (1978) state that a ratio of 10:1, European red mite to predators, is sufficient to control this pest; the ratio here was about 5:1 to 8:1 throughout the growing season. The eggs of European red mite were sampled in December 1978; the counts indicated a very low level of eggs and thus no need for an oil spray in 1979.

In summary, 2 years of organic control in this orchard has resulted in satisfactory control of all pests except white apple leafhopper in 1977 and codling moth in 1978. The codling moth is the key pest on apples and an infestation of 7.0 percent in 1978 will undoubtedly result in a con- siderable increase in codling moth in 1979. Our data indicate that male removal will not sup- press this population level and that the experi- ment on organic control will have to be aban- doned unless supplemental controls for codling moth are found.

REFERENCES

Downing, R. S. and J. C. Arrand. 1978. Integrated control of orchard mites on apple orchards in British Columbia. B.C. Ministry of Agriculture 78-1: 1-8.

McMullen, R. D. 1973. The occurrence and control of the Bruce spanworm in the Okanagan Valley, 1972. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 70: 8-10.

Madsen, H. F., F. E. Peters and J. M. Vakenti. 1975. Pest Management: Experiences in six British Columbia apple orchards. Can. Entomol. 107: 873-877.

Madsen, H. F., J. M. Vakenti, and F. E. Peters. 1976. Codling Moth: Suppression by male removal with sex pheromone traps in an isolated apple orchard. J. Econ. Entomol. 69: 597-599.

Madsen, H. F. and B. E. Carty. 1977. Pest Management: Four years experience in a commercial ap- ple orchard. J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia 74: 3-6.

6 J. ENTOMOL. Soc. BRIT. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), DEc. 31, 1979

EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST TUBER FLEA BEETLES, WIREWORMS AND APHIDS IN POTATOES

D. G. FINLAYSON, A. T. S. WILKINSON AND J. R. MACKENZIE

Research Station, Agriculture Canada 6660 N.W. Marine Drive, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1X2

ABSTRACT

Soil-incorporated and foliar-applied insecticides, alone and in combination, were tested in silt loam to control tuber flea beetle, Epitrix tuberis Gent., the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and the wireworm Agriotes obscurus (L.) Most soil-incorporated band treatments did not give adequate protection from tuber flea beetles. However, supplemental foliar applications, July 15 and 30 and August 15, reduced the percentage unmarketable tubers. to 138% under a heavy infestation in 1977 and to 0% in a lighter infestation in 1978. Fonofos, broadcast and soil-incorporated, gave the best control of wireworms and of a light infestation of tuber flea beetles. Methamidophos

was the best aphicide.

INTRODUCTION

Carbaryl, a carbamate, and endosulfon, a chlorinated hydrocarbon, are the only insec- ticides registered for the control of the tuber flea beetle, Epitrix tuberis Gent., in British Colum- bia. When used against light infestations these two insecticides give acceptable control, but they do not prevent damage to tubers in moder- ate and heavy infestations. Field experiments with both organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides, applied in band or broadcast with three supplemental foliar sprays to prevent damage by larvae of second and third generation flea beetles, showed that both carbofuran and fensulfothion gave excellent protection (Fin- layson et al. 1972). Carbaryl was ineffective against the heavy infestations in these ex- periments.

Subsequent experiments (Campbell and Fin- layson 1976) showed that carbofuran was the best insecticide for protecting potatoes against tuber flea beetle larvae, permethrin was ex- cellent against tuber flea beetles and methamidophos was the best against aphids (mainly green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.) ). None was satisfactory against both aphids and tuber flea beetles. In their experi- ment endosulfan allowed 53% unmarketable tubers even though 8 sprays were applied at 10- day intervals throughout the growing season.

Concurrent experiments against the wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (L.), showed that potatoes could be protected with fonofos and terbufos (Wilkinson et al. 1977). Carbofuran, previously registered and recommended for wireworm control in potatoes, was removed from the Vegetable Production Guide of British Columbia because of its inability to protect potatoes against wireworms in alkaline soil (Wilkinson et al. 1977). Carbofuran 10G for- mulation was subsequently withdrawn from the market in British Columbia by the manufac- turer, F.M.C. of Canada Ltd., following misap-

plication of the formulation which resulted in a serious duck-kill in 1975.

This paper reports experiments conducted in 1977 and 1978 to compare methods developed for wireworm control and to determine their ef- fectiveness in a control program against aphids and tuber flea beetles.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

At Agassiz, in a silt loam, single-row plots, 10 m long, were randomized within blocks. In 1977 there were 12 blocks with 1 untreated and 9 treated plots; in 1978 there were 8 blocks with 1 untreated and 7 treated plots. Plots were spaced 1 m apart in 1977 and 90 cm in 1978. There were 2 m between blocks. Granules of aldicarb, car- bofuran 5G, CGA 12223 (0,0-diethyl 0 [1-isopro- pyl-5-chloro-1,2,4-triazolyl-(3) ] phosphorothio- ate), chlorfenvinphos, ethoprophos (Mocap® ), fensulfothion, fonofos, isofenphos, permethrin and terbufos were applied as 30-cm band treat- ments at 2 g a.i./10 m row; fonofos was also ap- plied at 2 ga.i./10 m in the furrow and broadcast at 5 kg a.i./ha. The band and broadcast applica- tion were incorporated to 10 cm by rototilling. Potatoes, cv. Netted Gem, were planted at ap- proximately 30-cm spacing in the middle of the treated area immediately after incorporation of the insecticides. The potatoes were sprayed at two-week intervals starting in mid July to con- trol second and third generation tuber flea beetle and to contain populations of aphids. In 1977 3 blocks were sprayed with carbofuran at 0.5 kg a.i. in 1100 liters of water/ha/application, 3 with methamidophos at the same rate, 3 with permethrin at 0.2 kg a.i./ha and 3 were left un- sprayed. In 1978 2 blocks were sprayed with each of the 3 insecticides and 2 were left un- sprayed. The plots were treated pre-emerge with the herbicide metribuzin at 1.12 kg a.i./ha and top-killed in early September with diquat at 1.12 kga.i./ha.

Efficacy of the treatments was determined

J. ENTOMOL. Soc. BRIT. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), DEc. 31, 1979 7

by counting the aphids (1978 only) on an upper and lower compound leaf from each of 5 plan- ts/plot at 2-week intervals. Tuber flea beetle and wireworm (1978 only) damage was assessed from 50 tubers taken at harvest from each of the 120 plots in 1977 and 64 in 1978. The tubers were washed and peeled and the numbers of tuber flea beetle larval tunnels and wireworm feeding- holes/tuber recorded. Tubers were graded for larval tunnels: 0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, and 20 plus. Tubers with 10 or more tunnels were deemed unmarketable. Tubers with one or more wireworm holes were considered unmarketable.

Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance. The treatment averages were ranked and compared by Duncan’s multiple range test (Duncan 1955).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Aphid populations were held to low numbers when aldicarb was applied as a band treatment averaging 2 aphids/plot. When permethrin, and to a lesser degree carbofuran, were added as sup- plementary foliar sprays to aldicarb-treated plots the numbers of aphids increased to 64 and 18 respectively. Untreated plots averaged 41 aphids/plot whereas those sprayed with carbo- furan or permethrin averaged 96 and 271 aphids respectively. Average numbers of aphids for

untreated and soil-treated plots ranged from 2 (aldicarb) to 41 (untreated) and averaged 22 aphids. When the 3 supplementary foliar sprays were applied the ranges and averages were: car- bofuran, 18 (aldicarb) to 117 (fonofos), average 73; permethrin, 64 (aldicarb) to 278 (chlorfen- vinphos), average 183. The three supplementary sprays with methamidophos controlled the aphid population, counts ranged from 0 to 6 aphids/plot with an average of 3. Since unsprayed plots averaged only 22 aphids it ap- pears that the numbers of parasites and predators had been reduced by both carbofuran and permethrin sprays and possibly even when sprays of methamidophos were applied.

In 1977 (Table 1) soil-incorporated insec- ticide treatments alone did not prevent damage to tubers by larvae of tuber flea beetle. Un- marketable tubers ranged from 37% (terbofos band treatment) to 100% (untreated). When three foliar sprays were applied the percentage unmarketable tubers was lowered to 13% with carbofuran and 17% with permethrin. Plots receiving only sprays with carbofuran or permethrin to control only the second and third generations of beetles had 95 and 85% un- marketable tubers. Methamidophos was not so effective as carbofuran and permethrin sprays

TABLE 1. Percentage of unmarketable potatoes’ after various soil-incorporated and foliar-applied insecticides to prevent damage by tuber flea beetle larvae, Agassiz, 1977.

Soil applications

Foliar applications

Carbofuran Methamidophos Permethrin Untreated

Carbofuran, band 29 bed 54 bcde 29 de 7Z2D CGA 12223, band Do. DE 84 b 62 abc 83D Fonofos, band 35 bed 65 bed 31 cde 63 be Fonofos, broadcast 230d 38 de 20 e 66 be Fonofos, furrow | 5 be 67 bed 62 abc 73 b Isofenphos, band 26 ed 51 cde 45 bede 55 cde Mocap, band 35 bed 59 ‘bed 55 abcd 67 be Permethrin, band bib 82 be 67 ab 83 b Terbufos, band she iecel 22 e l7 e 37 ec Untreated 23> a 97 a 85 a 100 a

ol. 9 v2 47.4 b 69.8 a

Average 42.la

"Means in columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05). Averages of foliar applications were

compared independently.

8 J. ENTOMOL. Soc. BRIT. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), Dec. 31, 1979

TABLE 2. Percentage of unmarketable potatoes’ after various soil-incorporated and foliar-applied insecticides to prevent damage by tuber flea beetle larvae, Agassiz, 1978.

Foliar applications Soil applications

Carbofuran Methamidophos Permethrin Untreated Aldicarb, band 6 be 2 «be 3b 93 ab Chlorfenvinphos, band £2 5D 19 ab 29 a 78 b Fensulfothion, band Oe 9 be 6 b 76 b Fonofos, band Zac 6c be Se Fonofos, broadcast Lad led i: ee 13 d Isofenphos, band Oe 10 ¢ Le 42 Terbufos, band 3°¢ oie 4 b 38 c Untreated 29 a 33 a 2la 95 a Average 6.6 ¢ 11,9 b 8.3 58.3 a

‘Means in columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05). Averages of foliar applications were com- pared independently.

TABLE 3. Percentage unmarketable potatoes by wireworms after application of soil-incorporated insecticides at Agassiz, 1978.

Insecticide and method Unmarketable cuberen of application (%)

Aldicarb, band 54.8 ab Fensulfothion, band 40.0 be Chlorfenvinphos, band 61.3.4 Fonofos, band 21.0*¢cd Fonofos, broadcast 16.3-d Isofenphos, band 32.0. ed Terbufos, band 26.5 ed Untreated 6/.5 a

‘Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05).

J. ENTOMOL. Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), DEc. 31, 1979 9

for preventing damage by second and third in- star larvae.

In 1978 (Table 2) E. twberis larval damage to tubers was not so severe as in 1977. Untreated plots had 95% unmarketable tubers, but three sprays for second and third generation control reduced damage to less than 33%. Both the 1977 and 1978 results show the need to control the fir- st generation beetles. Fonofos broadcast and soil-incorporated allowed 4% unmarketable tubers. This was reduced to 1% unmarketable tubers by 3 applications of any of the foliar treatments. Soil-incorporated band treatments with the exception of chlorfenvinphos followed by the 3 sprays all produced acceptable control ranging from 88 to 100% marketable tubers. Again carbofuran and permethrin were equally effective and both significantly better than methamidophos.

Although aldicarb applied as a band treat- ment gave satisfactory control of aphids by systemic action, its contact activity did not pre- vent wireworm damage (Table 3). Of the soil- incorporated treatments, only the fonofos broadcast treatment with 16% unmarketable

tubers, and possibly band treatments with fonofos (25% unmarketable tubers), isofenphos (32% unmarketable) and terbufos (27% un- marketable) can be considered as possible con- didate materials for preventing damage to potatoes by A. obscurus.

In summary, aldicarb is an excellent Sys- temic aphicide, but appears to lack sufficient ef- fectiveness against wireworms and possibly tuber flea beetle even when foliar sprays are ap- plied against second and third generation beetles. Fonofos broadcast was the most effec- tive soil-incorporated insecticide but even it al- lowed 16% damage by wireworm. Carbofuran and permethrin were the most effective sprays against flea beetles, but aphid populations in- creased when these insecticides were applied. Methamidophos was the best aphicide and against a low level infestation of tuber flea beetle good protection was afforded. However, under a high level of infestation (1977) the per- centage of unmarketable tubers from methami- dophos sprayed plots was not significantly dif- ferent from that of plots which had no foliar ap- plications.

REFERENCES Campbell, C. J., and D. G. Finlayson. 1976. Comparative efficacy of insecticides against tuber flea beetle and aphids in potatoes in British Columbia. Can. J. Plant Sci. 56: 869-875.

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

Finlayson, D. G., M. J. Brown, C. J. Campbell, A. T. S. Wilkinson, and I. H. Williams. 1972. Insecti- cides against tuber flea bettle on potatoes in British Columbia (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera).

J. Entomol. Soc. Brit. Columbia, 69:9-13.

Wilkinson, A. T. S., D. G. Finlayson, and C. J. Campbell. 1977. Soil incorporation of insecticides for control of wireworms in potato land in British Columbia. J. Econ. Entomol. 70: 755-758.

The recent death of Colin Curtis marks the passing of one of British Columbia’s early authorities on biting insects which affect man, livestock and wildlife.

Formerly a science teacher and a director of audio-visual education in Victoria, Mr. Curtis was employed at the Federal Department of Agriculture, ‘“‘Mission Flats” laboratory at Kamloops, from 1948 until his retirement in 1969. During this period he was engaged in various phases of life-history, identification and control studies in-

volving blackflies, no-see-ums, snipeflies and mosquitoes, as well as spiders. Among his publications are several pertaining to mosquito control and a Monograph on the Mosquitoes of British Columbia published by the Provincial Museum.

Mr. Curtis was also widely known among Ham Radio operators, with whom he kept in regular touch until his recent illness, and, in addition, maintained a knowled- geable interest in early B.C. steamship and railway history.

His wife Audrey, two sons and four grandchildren are left to mourn.

10 J. ENTOMOL. Soc. Brit. COLUMBIA 76 (1979), Dec. 31, 1979

EFFECTS OF THE ANTITRANSPIRANT DOW CORNINGRXEF-4-3561 ON ARTHROPODS ON A NORTH IDAHO CATCHMENT'

DAVID L. KULHAVY? AND R. W. STARK

College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho

ABSTRACT R The effects of an antitranspirant material, Dow Corning’ ‘XEF-4-3561, applied aerially on arthropods in 1974 were examined. The only detectable difference (P > .05) noted was of short duration ( < 120 h) in the lower 10% of the treated watershed which received an ex- cessive application. Only sheets placed in the open had significant arthropod

collections.

INTRODUCTION

The initiation of a field investigation of an antitranspirant material Dow CorningRXEF- 4-3561 on water yield (Belt et al. 1977) on a north Idaho catchment provided an opportunity to investigate whether the material affected arthropods. Dow Corning Corporation of Mid- land, Michigan, contracted with the College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences, Uni- versity of Idaho, to conduct these tests.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

On 8 June 1974, from 0800 to 1600 h, 375 litres/hectare of a 5% aqueous emulsion of the XEF-4-3561 material was applied aerially to a watershed catchment (Belt et al. 1977) of 26.3 hectares on the Priest River Experimental Forest 14.4 km N or Priest River, Idaho. An adjacent catchment was maintained as a con- trol.

The treated catchment has a northwest aspect and ranges in elevation from 1049 to 1541 m. Slopes range from 10 to 45%. Soils are silt loam 1.31 to 1.97 m in depth underlain by coarse rocks, primarily gneiss. Vegetation was characteristic of the cedar-hemlock-grand fir (Thuja plicata Donn, Tsuga heterophylla Sar- gent and Abies grandis (Douglas) Lindley) type. The overstory vegetation was 30.5 to 61 m in height with a dense canopy. The sparse understory was composed of hemlock and red cedar seedlings and forbs.

Sample cards placed to monitor the disper- sal of the XEF-4-3561 emulsion indicated do- sage was reduced by 50% in an area near the ridge top; and in the lower 10% of the drainage, a convergence in flight pattern resulted in an excessive deposit. The bulk of the spray was intercepted by the canopy (Belt et al. 1977).

‘Supported in part by a grant from Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan. Published as contribution No. 175, Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

*Present address: Stephen F. Austin State University, School of Forestry, Nacogdoches, Texas 75962.

To investigate the effects of the emulsion on arthropods, the catchment was divided into 3 treatments (T) with 11 replicates in each treat- ment. A control of 11 replicates was established in the untreated catchment. Each treatment consisted of the placement of eleven 1.2 by 1.8 m plastic drop sheets at random intervals in the catchment.

In treatment 1 (T1) 50% of the sheet was covered by vegetation; treatment 2 (T2) and the control had 100% coverage; and treatment 3 (T3) was in the open. At distances of 4 to 11 m, along the roads, the drop sheets were placed either up or down slope at a distance of 1 to 4m from the road. Each sheet was oriented to the slope; a small trough was placed at the bottom of each sheet to catch any arthropods sliding down the sheet. Moisture did not collect on the sheets. The sheets were cleared of any arthropods or debris 24 h before the aerial application. Each sheet was then checked 24, 48 and 120 h after application. Arthropod fauna on the sheets were counted, collected and pre- served in 75% ethanol. Each collection sample was kept separate and the number, size, fre- quency, and kind of arthropod recorded.

Samples of 100 sweeps with a standard in- sect net were taken 24 h before and 24 h after the aerial application to monitor insect activity